Faculty of Agriculture


Growth Performance of Ruminants Fed Different Proportions of Maize and Sorghum Grain. Livestock Research for Rural Development 26 (9)
Ncube S., Ndlovu L.  R., Tavirimirwa, B., Tambo G., Mwembe R., and Nyamushamba G. B.

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of combining maize and sorghum grain high in soluble proanthocyanidins (PAs) (3.466 A550/g sample) on steer and wether feed intake, digestibility, growth and feed conversion ratio. The first experiment assessed the effects of combining maize and sorghum grain high in PAs (3.47 A550/g sample) on intake and digestibility of the diets fed to wethers. Twenty five Dorper wethers (mean initial bodymass 37.3 - 5.3 kg) of 18 months of age were stratified by initial weight then randomly allotted to five diets in a complete randomised design within each body mass group with 5 replicates per group and were fed one of the following diets:100% maize (100M); 75% maize and 25% sorghum (75M:25S); 50% maize and 50% sorghum (50M:50S); 25% maize and 75% sorghum (25M:75S); 100% sorghum (100S). In the second experiment the effect of combining maize and sorghum grain on feedlot performance was evaluated. Thirty steers (12 months old) were allotted to 5 pens. The composition of the diets was as described in Trial 1.  Feed intake of the wethers was not affected by the treatments.  Digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) ranked 50M:50S>100M>75M:25S>25M:75S>100S.  The feed conversion of the steers was similar on all diets, but those fed the sorghum diet had greater average daily gains than those fed maize. Carcass traits were not affected by grain type. Results from this study indicate that sorghum grain is useful as a source of energy in pen fattening diets.

Potential Use of Schkuhria Pinnata in the Control of Mastitis Pathogens. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 3(11)
Mupfure. A.,
  Matondi G.H.M., Imbayarwo-Chikosi V.E., Nyamushamba G.B.,  Marandure T., Masama, E. 2014


This study investigated the potential use of Dwarf Marigold (Schkuhria pinnata) in the control of mastitis pathogens. Schkuhria pinnata (SP) juice extracted using either distilled water or methanol as diluents with selected concentrations ((20%, 40%, 80% and 100%) was tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureas, Streptoccus agalactiae and Escherichia coli bacteria. Total Bacterial Count (TBC) for each extract concentration was then determined by visual assessment through plate count on bacterial colonies. Although plant extracts were not as effective as Gentamycin (commercial control), SP extracts had a significant antibacterial activity (P<0.05) against Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli bacteria. Type of diluent had no effect (P>0.05) on bacterial counts. Escherichia coli had significantly lower (P<0.05) TBC than Staphylococcus aureas and Streptococcus agalactiae. Schkuriah pinnata extracts could be considered as potentially effective antibacterial agent and can be developed as an alternative therapy against bovine mastitis.

A Comparison of Goat Productivity in Gweru District, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe. Advanced Journal of Agricultural Research.
Banana-Gamundani N.Y.D., Gwazane M., Chimedza S.T., Nyamushamba G.B., Tavirimirwa B. and Sisito G.  2014. 


The study focused on the comparison of goat productivity in Gweru District, Midlands Province. Household surveys were used to characterize and compare the contribution of flock sizes, rearing practices and goat reproductive performance in wards Gambiza, Guinea fowl and Somabhula with different rangelands and farming systems. A sample of 120 households was selected for the survey. The data was analyzed by   Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 21 and an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted to check for differences in the mean number of goat deaths per Ward. The results showed significant (P<0.05) differences in goat deaths, type of housing, water source and reproductive parameters. Significant differences appeared within and across the villages and wards. Flock sizes differed within the wards (P<0.05) with Somabhula having the smallest number of goats while Guinea fowl had the highest number of goats. The results indicated that goat performance was the lowest in Somabhula.

Herd Dynamics and Phenotypic Characters of the Indigenous Beef Cattle Breeds (Bos indicus) in Gokwe North. 
Livestock Research for Rural Development Journal.Nyamushamba G.B.,
Bvirwa W., Matondi G.H.M., Mugova C., Imbayarwo-Chikosi V.E.(2015) 


The objective of the study was to characterise the communal beef cattle production systems, identify possible constraints of communal beef cattle in Gokwe North district in Zimbabwe. The degree to which communal beef cattle are intergrated in the smallholder farming systems differs depending on the socio-economic, cultural and biological factors within each system. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to households randomly selected from Gokwe-North district (n=110) eco-zone V. A survey, measurement of phenotypic traits of indigenous beef cattle and a longitudinal study of indigenous beef household herds in randomly selected villages of Nembudziya ward were used as study instruments. Information collected included: house-hold demographics, production practices, identification of constraints to production and possible solutions, and management practices (feeding, watering, breeding and health provision). The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Farmers kept a variety of livestock species of which most were indigenous breeds. Chickens were the most common species kept. Although cattle were the second most common species kept, they were more important than all other species in the livelihoods of farmers due to their various roles. Free range extensive production system was the dominant practice. Men owned 87% of the household indigenous beef cattle herds whilst women owned 13%. The following traits were selected for; disease resistance (94.3%), tick resistance (24.4%) and body size and conformation (5.1%) in indigenous beef cattle. Most farmers began beef production with an initial stock size of less than five, either bought from other farmers or inherited. Indigenous beef cattle were mainly used as a source of draught power and payment of lobola. Herd sizes were 7.3 ±0.96 on average with the highest per village being 7.8±0.96 and the least was 4.8 ±0.71. Among challenges faced by farmers in Gokwe North, the most critical were disease problems, feed and water shortages and inadequate extension service. There were opportunities for improving livestock production in the area including demonstrations on the implementation of proven technologies, augmented by improved extension service provision, deployment of resources and dedicated monitoring systems.


Faculty of Management, Entrepreneurial Development Studies and Information


Risk analysis and management techniques in emerging economies: a missing link in SMES operations. Asian Academic Research Journal of Social Science and  Humanities 1 (21)
Mbizi R. and Chinoda T. 


The  purpose  of  this  paper  is  to  examine  the  extent  to  which  risk  awareness  and management  skills  and  techniques  affect  the  growth  of  small  to  medium  enterprise operations. This research is based on a survey of issues and literature published in various textbooks on small to medium enterprises and entrepreneurship.  Examples that are prevailing in the Zimbabwean context were used. Findings indicate that small to medium enterprises are failing to grow and sustain their operation as a result of lack of risk awareness and management techniques. SMEs as entrepreneurs  should  take  calculated  risk  and  use  hedging  techniques  where  necessary  to reduce the loss in the event of the occurrence of the negative event. The majority of people, who  enter  into  SMEs,  do  so  as  a  last  resort  to  survive  after  retirement  or  retrenchment  or death  of  the  bread  winner.  These  usually  do  not  have  the  risk  management  skills  and techniques  to  operate  successfully  and  hence  a  knowledge  gap  is  created  as  indicated  in prevailing situations in Zimbabwe. Given the growth rate failure of SMEs as a result of lack of risk management skills there is need for risk awareness campaigns and risk management techniques impartation to SMEs Practical implication-Future research. This paper allows researchers and practitioners to gain an understanding of risk management and skills as the pillar for SMEs growth.

An Assessment of Risk Management Practices in SMES in Zimbabwe: A Review and Synthesis. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science 19 (8): 06-14
Gwangwava E., Manuere F., Gutu K., Chinoda T,  Rangarirai F.


This  study  used  exploratory  and  descriptive  survey  research  design  to  assess  the  level  of  risk management  by  SMEs  in  Zimbabwe  with  particular  emphasis  on  the  knowledge  possessed  by  SMEs Owners/managers and the insurance cover  undertaken by their business with a view to  reducing their risk.  The study  used  a  sample  of  380  SMEs  operating  in  different  lines  of  business.  Both  open  ended  and  closed questionnaires  were  distributed  to  owners  of  the  SMEs  selected  for  the  study  and  the  data  collected  were analysed  using  descriptive  statistics  .The  findings  reveal  that  90%  of  SMEs  have  a  poor  knowledge  of  the concept  of  risk  and  consequently  do  not  have  insurance  cover  .The  majority  of  SMEs  did  not  have  risk management strategies in place to address risk management issues.


Ongoing Research : Faculty of Agriculture

2015. ‘Role of Indigenous Knowledge in Natural Resource Management in Murewa, Zimbabwe’
Sinikiwe D., Gatsi A., and Tibugari H.


Indigenous people have managed their environment for generations without causing damage to the local ecology. Indigenous knowledge in natural resource management in Zimbabwe has not been systematically documented despite its use. The specific objectives were to identify indigenous knowledge systems that relate to natural resource management used in Murewa, Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe and to determine the people’s attitude and beliefs regarding these systems. Data from questionnaires was analysed using SPSS. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data from Focus Group Discussions and Key Informant Interviews. Results showed that taboos, totems, sacredness, shrines and prohibitions are used to manage soil, water, forests, wetlands and biodiversity in Murewa. Eighty percent of respondents said that these systems are still widely used in the area and 91% of the elderly believe in them while only 10% of the youths showed knowledge and use of IKS. Eighty nine percent of the respondents felt that indigenous knowledge empowers them as a community, and sixty percent felt that it increases self-efficiency in managing their natural resources. It also gives them cultural pride and motivation to conserve their natural resources cost effectively according to 82% of the respondents. IKS are still used in natural resource management but are in danger of being eroded. It is recommended that indigenous knowledge be integrated with modern scientific methods so that they can be used in synchrony. The young generation needs to be educated and encouraged to adopt indigenous knowledge systems on environmental issues. Documentation and establishment of Indigenous Knowledge Systems centres would help preserve indigenous knowledge.

2015. Effect of Parity and Year-Season on Somatic Cell Count, Milk, Protein and Fat Yield of the Red Dane Cows in Zimbabwe.
Nyamushamba G.B., Zezai A., Chikosi V.E  and Matondi G.H.M.


A study was carried out to analyse the effect of parity and year-season on the somatic cell count, milk, protein and fat yield of the Red Dane cows in Zimbabwe. Records for cows that calved between 2000 and 2010 were obtained from the Livestock Identification Trust (LIT). Data was edited and analysed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Version 9.3 (SAS, 2012). A test for normality was done using Proc Univariate procedure. Milk yield, fat yield, protein yield and LogSCC significantly (P<0.05) increased with parity. Parity contributed to 9.35%, 13.05%, 10.71% and 3.51% of the total variation in milk yield, protein yield, fat yield and LogSCC respectively. Year-season had a significant effect (P<0.05) on milk yield, protein yield, fat yield and LogSCC for the Red Dane cows. Year season contributed 22.91%, 25.36%, 20.42% and 17.02% to milk yield, protein yield, fat yield, and LogSCC respectively. There was a negative correlation between LogSCC and both milk yield and fat yield. All correlation coefficients between the production traits, milk yield, protein yield and fat yield were positive and significant (P<0.05). Use of the Red Dane breed is highly recommended at both commercial and smallholder level because in comparison to other dairy breeds, parity and year-season have lower effect on logSCC and the production traits.

2015. Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Fed Graded Levels of Sesbania sesban as a Protein Source. Livestock Production and Rural Development Journal.Matondi
G.H.M., Nyamushamba G.B., Nyahangare E.,Imbayarwo-Chikosi V.E., Ndemera R., and Masama E. 


Soya bean meal is an expensive major ingredient in livestock feeds. A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of substituting soya bean with S. sesban leaves in rabbit diets on their growth performance.  The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic. Sixteen, 6-week old female rabbits were randomly allocated to four treatments, (0% control, 15%, 30% and 45% inclusion of dried S. sesban leaves), with four replicates per treatment in a Completely Randomised Design. Measurements of feed intake, live weight gain and feed conversion were taken over the four week experimental period. As the S. sesban inclusion level increased there was an increased feed intake and live weight gain. Rabbits fed on commercial pellets gained 500g in week 3 more than 200g for rabbits fed on 45% S. sesban (P<0.05). Feed conversion ratio decreased with increased inclusion of S. sesban leaves. Dried S. sesban leaves can be used safely as a protein source up to 30% level of inclusion without affecting performance of rabbits provided good management practices are maintained. Farmers can reduce the cost of raising rabbits through the use of farm grown feeds.

2015 Growth Performance of Weaner Rabbits Fed Cowpea Based Rations as Protein Source.
Matondi. G.H.M., Chimurenga Z., Nyamushamba. G.B., Imbayarwo-Chikosi V.E., Tavirimirwa B. 


An experiment was conducted to determine the effect varying dietary protein levels of cowpea based rations on rabbit voluntary feed intake, growth and feed conversion ratio. Twenty four weaner rabbits of 4-5 weeks age were stratified by initial weight then randomly allotted to four diets in a Complete Randomised Design within each body mass group with 6 replicates per group and were fed one of the following diets: 0% cow pea based crude protein (CP) (control diet with 18% soya bean based CP); 10% CP, 15% CP and 20% CP cow pea based diets. Protein level of cowpea and time significantly affected (P< 0.05) Voluntary Feed Intake (VFI). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in VFI on rabbits fed the control diet, 15% CP and 20% CP cow pea based diets. Feed conversion of the rabbits was high on control diet, 15 % CP and 20% CP cowpea diets, but those fed the 10% CP cow pea based diet had lower average weekly gains than the other diets. Results from this study indicate that cowpea is an effective source of protein in rabbit diets and can successful replace commercial feed sources.

2015. An Evaluation on the Potential Effects of Crushed Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench Grain Extracts on the Germination of Black Jack (Bidens Pilosa)
Tibugari H., Matsikidze V., and Dube, S.


The potential allelopathic effects of crushed Sorghum bicolor L. Moench var. Sila grain was evaluated for sustainable Bidens pilosa management in cropping fields at Henderson Research Station during the 2014/2015 cropping season. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 10 treatments, replicated three times was applied. The 10 treatments included 4 dilutions of 1kg each of crushed sorghum grain at various concentrations of distilled water and two different temperatures. Atrazine was applied as the positive control while the negative control was distilled water. In both boiled and unboiled water, 1kg each of crushed S. bicolor grain was mixed with 500 ml, 1000 ml, 1500 ml and 2000ml of de-ionized water. B. pilosa seeds were soaked in each solution for 24 hours before planting the weed seeds. T1 (atrazine treated) and T6 (boiled water at 500ml concentration) exhibited the same characteristic as no germination occurred. In T2 (unboiled water at 500ml), the weed had an 80% germination, plant height of 2.8cm and had roots growing 4.5cm long. Results on total germination percent, height and root length indicate that crushed S. bicolor has potential allelopathic effects on germination, height and root length of B. pilosa. S. bicolor can be used in integrated weed management where B. pilosa is troublesome.

2015. Potential Repellent Effect of Swartzia Madagascariensis Desv Pod Powder on Sitophilus Zeamais Motschulsky on Stored Zea Mays.
Tibugari H., Vhumisai, H., and Dube, S.


A laboratory experiment to test the repellent effect of Swartzia madagascariensis pod powder on Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky on stored Zea mays grain was carried out at Women’s University in Africa farm in Marondera from March to May 2015. A bioassay consisting of a rectangular flat-bottomed container was used to evaluate the repellence of S. madagascariensis. Two small bowls with treated and untreated Z. mays grain were placed at the bottom of the container equidistant from the centre. The plant powder was evaluated at three concentrations (25g, 50g and 75g) and Actellic Super TM 2% dust (2g) was included as a positive control. Alternate treated and untreated Z. mays grains (100 g) were placed in the two plastic bowls. The treatments were arranged in a Completely Randomised Design with 3 replicates per concentration including a no-choice control with untreated Z. mays in all portions. For each treatment, 20 adult weevils (9 days old) were released at the centre of the basin. Weevil counts were taken on 12 hour intervals for 48 hours to establish percent repellence. The magnitude of repellence of the weevils was significantly influenced (P< 0.05) by concentration of powder applied and exposure period. Z. mays grains treated with 75g of the pod powder of S. madagascariensis had the highest percent repellence value of 83.3% at 48 hours exposure time. The results demonstrated that S. madagascariensis has contact-repellent properties against S. zeamais and that the test insects made oriented movements away from treated grains to get acceptable food as manifested in the alternate treated-untreated bioassay system. Although insects have a tendency to move and aggregate in a certain direction when exposed to unfavourable and stressful conditions such as exposure to chemicals, it can be concluded that the pods of S. madagascariens have the potential to repel weevils. The powder can be lined in granaries and on grain storage bins. Farmers may integrate synthetic pesticides and S. madagascariensis for effective and sustainable control of S. zeamais.

2015. Establishment of Bactrocera Dorsalis and Ceratitis Capitata: Tephritidae Fruit Fly Species in Mashonaland Central Province, Zimbabwe.
Dube S., Nhemachena T., and  Tibugari, H. 


Bactrocera dorsalis is a good disperser; and an aggressive invader dominating several of the indigenous pest species. Ceratitis spp. and invasive Bactrocera spp have not been confirmed as either present or absent in the country. However these are pests of economic importance. An analysis of the establishment of B. dorsalis (Drew, Tsurata and White) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit fly species in Mashonaland Central Province: Mazowe, Bindura and Shamva of Zimbabwe was carried out from 2012 to 2014. The study also sought to compare relative abundance of B. dorsalis and C. capitata in the province. The Chempac Bucket trap was used. Methyl eugenol (ME) lure was used to attract males of B. dorsalis while trimedlure was used to attract males of the Ceratitis species. Identification was done using entomological keys and a trapping protocol for surveillance for the establishment of fruit fly pest status in Zimbabwe developed by the National Plant Protection Organisation. The flies per trap per day index was used to estimate the average number of flies captured in one trap in one day that the trap was exposed in the field. Data was subjected to a paired sample test which showed a significant difference in the abundance of C. capitata and B. dorsalis in Mashonaland Central Province. Results showed that B. dorsalis and C. capitata had established themselves (were present) in 2012 with peak populations in the fruiting seasons. B. dorsalis showed a peak period between December 2012 and March 2013 while C. capitata population reduced in that period. B. dorsalis was relatively more abundant and may gradually outcompete and displace the indigenous C. capitata. There is need for continuous monitoring of the pests to control their spread. There is need for implementation of sustainable management practices for fruit fly control in these areas. Research to establish the extent of the prevalence of the pests in other provinces is recommended.

2015. Occurrence of Senkobo in Zimbabwean Cattle in Relation to Forage Zinc and Rainfall Levels.
Mugova C., Bayayi D., Nyamushamba G., and Matondi G.  


The study analyzed the relationship among the occurrence of Senkobo, forage zinc and rainfall levels in different agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe. Data on reported cases of Senkobo for the period 2000-2014 were obtained from the department of Veterinary Services. Forage samples fromagro ecological zones 1 to 5 were taken using the quadrant method and analyzed for mineral zinc content. Statistical analysis included trend analysis of the occurrence of Senkobo, co-variation and correlation analyses. Results showed a co-variation between different agro-ecological zones and the occurrence of Senkobo, with the highest rate of increase in morbidity recorded in natural regions 2a and 2b for the period under review (r2= 0.84 and 0.86 respectively). Fifty-two percent variation in the recorded Senkobo cases were explained by variation in rainfall (R=0.72, R2= 0.52). Further analysis revealed that forage zinc levels were strongly related to the occurrence of Senkobo (R2=0.59) as the amount available in the forage ultimately determines the metabolisable zinc levels. It was concluded that the epidemiology of Senkobo is strongly linked to the available forage zinc levels and rainfall which varies with different agro-ecological zones. More work has to be done to elucidate the effect of temperature on the morbidity of the disease in Zimbabwe.

2015.  Effect of Year of Calving, Lactation Number and Days in Milk on Milk Yield of Holstein Fresian Cows At Women’s University in Africa (WUA) Farm. Livestock Research for Rural Development Journal.
Nyamushamba G.B.,
 Shonhiwa C.,  Matondi G.H.M., Mugova C., Imbayarwo-Chikosi V.E. 


The objective of the study was to determine the effect of year of calving, lactation number and days in milk (among other non-genetic factors) on milk yield of Holstein Fresian cows at Women’s University in Africa (WUA) farm. Records for cows that calved between 2002 and 2014 were obtained from WUA farm. The data pertained to Holstein Fresian cows at WUA farm located in Marondera, 4.5 km off the Harare-Mutare highway. All data edits were done using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Version 9.3 (SAS, 2012). Data were also analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM) of Henderson Type III sum of squares in SAS. Means were separated with the Least Significant difference (LSD). All the factors that were tested had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on milk yield. Year of calving, lactation number and days in milk contributed 10.06%, 1.57%, 10.71% and 36.07% respectively to the total variation in milk yield. Milk production significantly declined from 2002 to 2014, 2002 having the highest milk yield and 2011 having the lowest milk yield. The non-genetic factors need to be managed very well in order to optimise milk production and increase profitability of the farm.

2015. Challenges and Opportunities of Smallholder Goat Production in Insiza District
Nyamushamba G.B.,
Chakanyuka C., Matondi G.H.M., Mugova C.


A study was carried out in Insiza District of Matabeleland South Province to determine the constraints and opportunities of smallholder goat production. The results of the study were based on the survey of 40 randomly sampled goat producing households. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Results showed that the majority of the respondents were males (65%) and they are in their older ages (± 60 years). Males were dominant owners of goats and household heads.  Chickens, goats, cattle and donkeys were the most reared livestock species kept in the area. Goats are kept to generate income through sales, source of meat, manure and milk production. The dominant goat breed found was the indigenous Matabele goat. The goats were reared exclusively through extensive foraging during the dry season but were herded, tethered or a combination during the cropping season. Flock sizes were small, averaging to 11 goats per household. All goat sales were farm gate.  The major feed resource was natural pasture ad source of water were boreholes, seasonal dams and rivers. Concentrates and minerals were not included in the diet of the animals. The main type of housing is unroofed kraals poorly constructed with local poles. Uncontrolled mating within the households flock was dominant in the area. The major constraints were predators, diseases and markets. Predators, diseases and old age were the major causes of mortality. Low cost of production especially on material used for the construction of housing, method of disease control, use of borehole water for drinking and type of grazing present as opportunities of goat production. Goats benefit its owners with cash, meat and manure. Also there are no levies to farmers as they sale at farm gate unlike to cattle sale pens Type. Goats are assets used as a store for wealth by rural as they are second livestock specie kept again they are easy to dispose of since they are fungible unlike cattle which besides their price they have other socio- economic uses.

2015.  Solid Waste Handling Practices and Perspectives in Mbare
Mutema C.,  Mpofu L., and Dube S.


Solid waste disposal is a challenge to municipalities, as waste competes with humans for land and financial resources to make it safe. The study examined solid waste handling practices and perspectives in Mbare, Harare. The objectives of the study were to explore knowledge levels among residents in Mbare about solid waste disposal and management, to evaluate the general practices of people in Mbare that relate to waste disposal, to examine the perspectives of people in Mbare on solid waste management. Focus group discussions, participatory observations and questionnaires were used to gather data from residents in Mbare. A clean up campaign was also held and participants were interviewed. Results showed that solid waste management is constrained by the low knowledge levels, general practices and perspectives by residents, financial and material resources resulting in a failure to properly assist residents in waste storage, failure to collect and transport the waste, poor environmental awareness among members of the public resulting in residents resorting to illegal dumping, burning, composting, and burying the waste at the generation site. Education of residents on solid waste management from household level is recommended. An effective functional waste disposal system by the local authorities in order to achieve pro-environmental behavior is recommended. An integrated waste management programme involving all stakeholders should be employed.

Faculty of Management, Entrepreneurial Development Studies and Information Technology

Random Walk Hypothesis: Evidence from Market Efficiency of the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange.
Hlupo P. 2014. 


This study examines whether the share prices of companies listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange follow the Random Walk Hypothesis. The research is motivated by the fact that investors are interested in knowing whether past share prices have a propensity to forecast future share prices. The period covered by the research was January 2014 to December 2014. The main objective of the study investigated the possibility that share prices follow the Random Walk Hypothesis. The data was analysed using the Chi-square Test, the Runs Test and the Auto-correlation Test. The findings showed that changes in share prices on the ZSE refute the Random Walk Hypothesis. The study concluded that share price shifts follow some pattern or trend and that historical price changes can be used to predict future price movements. The study also concluded that the ZSE provides an opportunity for investors to create wealth as they take advantage of its weak-form inefficiency.

Do Higher Equity Holdings influence Firm Value Creation in International Joint Venture Partners from Developing Countries?: Evidence from South Africa.
Mangwengwende T. H. N. and Ezeoha, A. 2015.


This study investigates the impact of equity holdings in international joint ventures (IJVs) on firm value creation for their developing country partner firms. ‘Conventional wisdom’ on the positive value of collaboration and teamwork has left many developing country firms actively seeking IJV partners with many failing to realise the benefits they sought. However, despite poor results for partners in IJVs they have still garnered unfettered support from many national governments and lacked the required scrutiny by the partner firms themselves with many companies seeking to hold high equity stakes in their IJVs to address the challenges other firms have faced with IJVs. It is this solution to the problem that this study investigates. Employing an event study methodology on IJV announcements from 1998 to 2011, using daily share returns the study tests whether the level of equity held can explain when South African IJVs are value enhancing and when they are value diminishing. The study finds that while the market responds to IJV announcements, its responses do not, on average, reflect that IJVs are firm value enhancing for their South African partners at formation. Moreover, equity holdings do not help to distinguish the poor ventures from the good ones. The results caution unfettered entry/support for IJVs and challenge the role of equity distribution in determining the value of the IJV to its partner firms. For IJV researchers, the results present new evidence questioning IJV firm value creation at formation and provide a potential explanation for the conflict in previous IJV research.

The Role of Entrepreneurship Programmes in Rural Youth Livelihoods.
Mangwende S. P. 2015.


The paper examines the significance of changes brought about by youth entrepreneurship programmes in Wedza district of Mashonaland East province. Firstly, the paper examines the extent to which the entrepreneurship programmes have met the real needs of youth in the district. Secondly, it examines the emerging possibilities that the entrepreneurship programmes have availed to the rural youth. The specific phenomena under study were youth entrepreneurship programmes in the district wards. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select the participants from youth, key informants from the ministries of SMEs and Youth, Indigenisation and Empowerment and local leadership. Interviews, observation, focus group discussions and documentary review were adopted as the research tools. Drawing from the sample of participants, the results provided support for the study hypotheses. As expected, agricultural entrepreneurial projects represented a major source of income for the rural youth. Particularly, marketing gardening projects had a strategic role since they offered significant opportunities for the rural young people through value addition, processing and trading activities. Consequently, the entrepreneurship programmes have significantly changed the lives of young people involved in entrepreneurial projects. Emerging trends arising from the study were that entrepreneurship programmes provide a myriad of possibilities to the rural youth. The results show possibilities of acquiring household assets and creating wealth through raring cattle. Other possibilities that emerged encompass equipping rural youth with the appropriate skills, knowledge and attitudes for survival. They also encompass entrepreneurial attributes like creativity, innovation, risk-taking, persistence, self-efficacy, need for achievement, social orientation, willingness to take action and resource mobilisation. Further research need to establish the unintended positive and negative benefits of the entrepreneurship programmes among rural youth in the district.

An Assessment on the Potential of ICT Adoption In Improving Service Delivery in Prisons and Correctional Facilities in Zimbabwe: A Case Study Of Chikurubi Maximum Prison.
Kuranga C. 2015. 


Technological innovations have transformed the way prisoners are admitted, supervised and followed up through the criminal justice system. The perfectness of services being offered by an organization is determined by the state of technology that organization has. Improving technology does not necessarily entail wasting a lot of resources on proprietary software, but the proposed integration of ICT services and systems in an organization should be seen to respond to bona fide organizational requirements, rather than ICT developments to dictate the pace. This study examines the potential of ICT adoption in improving service delivery in prisons and correctional facilities in Zimbabwe.

An Analysis of the Effects of Corporate Governance on Donor Funding with Specific Reference to Christian Aid Funded Non-Governmental Organisations. Mataga C. 2015. 


This study was concerned with analysing the effects of corporate governance on donor funding in CA funded non-governmental organisations (NGOs) with operations in Matabeleland South Province in Zimbabwe. The study mainly focused of four tenets of corporate governance namely accountability, transparency, leadership and internal control environment found in NGOs, in an attempt among other things to suggest best practices which can be adopted to guarantee continued donor funding and financial sustainability of the organisations. The study employed a case study survey approach and the study population composed of 19 NGOs based in Matabeleland South Province. A total of 76 respondents were selected made up of board members, management and non management staff. Literature review was carried out to get inter-alia an in-depth appreciation of the area under study. Structured research questionnaires and personal interviews were used as research instruments. The study showed that good governance practices are critical for attracting donor funding and literacy levels are very high within the NGO sector. The study confirmed that NGO accountability, transparency and leadership are among the top critical factors that have a positive relationship with donor funding. Those NGOs with weak transparency, leadership and accountability structures are facing a bleak future, and are not being effective in resource mobilisation. Resultantly a number of the NGOs are closing shop due to governance and accountability challenges. The study prescribed that NGOs should embrace good governance practices with same spirit as profit oriented organisation in order to have an edge in attracting donor funding for financial sustainability. As progressive organisations in this highly competitive globalised environment there is need for NGO management and board to provide leadership in resource mobilisation for survival of their organisations. Further looking ahead the study recommended that another research be carried out on the effect on donor funding of other principles of corporate governance that were not investigated by this research. Furthermore it is recommended that this study be used as a springboard for a further broad based study incorporating NGOs operating in all provinces in Zimbabwe to establish the role of corporate governance structures in attracting donor funding.

A Study of The Role Of Knowledge Management Systems in the Innovativeness of Academic Institutions: A Case Study of the Faculty Of Science at the University Of Zimbabwe.
Mapuranga L. 2015. 


Knowledge Management Systems is tool that is gaining momentum and is being adopted by many organisations globally owing to the benefits of competitive advantage that it gives to the organisation that upholds it. Knowledge management (KM) has emerged as a crucial process used by organisations to manage and exploit knowledge generated in the organisation. The benefits of knowledge management systems include an increase in innovativeness dependent on the efficient manner of handling knowledge generation, dissemination and knowledge transfer. An organisation that upholds KM can result in new products and services being generated. This study evaluated the critical role of knowledge management systems ininnovativeness of academic institutions. The study did an enquiry mode to assess if the following factors; human resources practices, organisational learning, management and leadership and organisational culture enabled knowledge generation. The study also determined if knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer affect innovativeness. This study used descriptive research design, and the sampling technique chosen was convenience sampling. Quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were employed and the research instruments employed were questionnaires and interviews. Results revealed that all but one of the factors enabled knowledge generation. Results also acknowledge that knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer affect innovativeness in a faculty within tertiary academic institution. The research recommends that the faculty should put in place a knowledge management system in order to achieve greater competitive advantage in it industry of operation.

An Examination of Economic Policies Affecting the Market Share of Willowvale Mazda Motor Industries.
Makuyana F. 2015.

Willowvale Mazda Motor Industries (WMMI) is one of the few surviving industrial beacons of Zimbabwe after the onslaught of a decade long economic crisis. The company is one of the three companies in Africa licensed to assemble and distribute Mazda vehicles, making it even more strategic to the country’s economy. The shrinkage of the company’s market share from a high of 80% in the 1980s to the current low of 11% coupled with capacity underutilisation currently ranging between 15% and 20% motivated the undertaking of this research. The research seeks to examine the economic policies affecting the market share of the vehicle assembling industry, a case study of WMMI. The methodology involved desk and field research. The desk research involved gathering secondary data from key stakeholders, internet and written materials relating to the industry (literature review).The field research involved visiting companies and conducting interviews and administering questionnaires. The research found out that the industry’s market share was being eroded as a result of ineffective and inconsistent economic policies. The main shortfalls in the economic policies were i) failure to counter unfair competition from South African vehicle exports to Zimbabwe that enjoyed subsidies under their Government’s Motor Industry Development Policy (MIDP), ii) Government’s decision to lower duty on light commercial vehicle segments between August 2009 and November 2014which segment WMMI thrives on, iii) Government’s adoption of an ‘open border’ policy leading to influx of imported second hand vehicles from Asia and iv) failure of Government to award contracts to local vehicle assemblers under the local procurement policy and Buy Zimbabwe campaign. The study recommended that protective tariffs were required to counter unfair competition waged by new vehicles imported from South Africa. The tariffs on light commercial vehicles were to be reviewed upwards to encourage uptake of local ones while the tariffs on passenger vehicles especially the entry level ones (not exceeding 1.5 litre) were to be maintained at the current levels. The study also recommended that the local assemblers were to be awarded a quota of Government’s annual vehicle contracts to prop them up.

Exploring the Critical Success Factors for M-Commerce Adoption in Urban Zimbabwe: A case study of Malbereign, Harare.
Moyo N. 2015.


The study explored the critical factors determining the adoption of m-commerce in urban Zimbabwe.. The study was prompted by the disconnection between the increase in m-commerce marketing strategies, promotion materials and budgets by the three telecommunications companies in the country (namely Telecel, Net One and Econet Wireless) and the relatively slow uptake by consumers. 57 m-commerce registered subscribers and 3 merchant shops were used as the research subjects. Data collection techniques employed were both open ended and closed questionnaires including structured and semi-structured interviews as research instruments. The study adopted a mixed methodological approach of both qualitative and quantitative methodology and data was analyzed using content analysis. The study revealed that there are factors which influence adoption of m-commerce with perceived risk and costs as the main deterrents. Perceived usefulness, ease of use and the size of the network were critical factors influencing adoption hence service providers. However the study identified perceived risk and perceived costs as the major impediments to adoption. Consequently, service providers should enhance their measures to address perceived risk and costs in addition to their current stance of continual praise for the convenience of use. The study recommends that the telecommunications companies should look at maximising system security to start increase the likelihood of adoption.

Human Resource Management Systems as Drivers of Viability in Agricultural Business Units: A Case Study of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces Chinhoyi University of Technology Farm.
Katsande, S. 2015. 


This research is based on the need to investigate how human resource management systems HRMS drive viability in agribusiness. While HRMS have been explored in great detail in a variety of industries there is a conspicuous dearth in their evaluation in the agribusiness industry, particularly since the industry is often labour intensive. The study examined the consequences of adopting an HRMS on business survival and growth. Based on a trend analysis of questionnaires and in depth interviews with management, staff, financiers and supporting institutions associated with the sample site’s agribusiness the study found that the adoption of HRMS could positively influence the viability of an agribusiness unit, where viability was measured by survival and growth. However, the type of HRMS the industry demanded required the explicit protection of autonomy and discretion along the various levels of their hierarchy to ensure dynamism in the face of constantly changing environmental and market factors.

An Assessment of the Impact of Competition on an Organisation’s Performance: The Case of Air Zimbabwe (2010 -2014).
Muringi R. 2015.


While the impact of competition on an individual organisation’s performance is well documented most of the existing literature does not capture the idiosyncrasies of different markets sufficiently to distinguish how the competition should be met. It is for this reason that many organisations adopting ‘best practice’ find themselves facing the same challenges as non-adopters. This study looks at the aviation industry because of the fact that due to its high entry costs it limits the options available to firms (limited scope for diversification, market exit and expansion). Using a Time Series Analysis of the airline industry in Zimbabwe from the year 2010 to 2014 the study identified that diversification in service and income streams was necessary to fight competition in the industry.

The Internal Constraints Faced in the Implementation of the Integrated Results–Based Management (IRBM) System in Government Secondary Schools, Zimbabwe: A Case of Morgan High School.
Maminimini E. 2015.

The research focused on the implementation of Integrated Results-Based Management (IRBM) in the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education using a case study of Morgan High School. The purpose of the study was to establish the internal constraints faced in implementing IRBM at Morgan High School. An analytical case study approach was used to study establish the constraints faced in implementing IRBM at Morgan High School. Data for this detailed study was obtained mainly from Morgan High School. A major component of the study was a survey conducted to collect primary data from the school’s members of staff through a questionnaire. The survey, in addition to complementing the case analysis, provided ample evidence of the existence of internal constraints in IRBM implementation. Personal interviews were also conducted with the school Administration. From the body of evidence presented, it was established that the internal constraints faced in implementing IRBM at Morgan High School were; resistance to change amongst staff, financial constraints, absence of suitable reward systems and lack of requisite skills and expertise. Recommendations were made arising from the study that more consultations should be made with all concerned stakeholders in order to reduce resistance to change. A stakeholder participatory approach should be adopted in IRBM implementation to ensure ownership of the programme. Secondly it was recommended that Government should plan and budget for IRBM programme implementation and provide financial resources to facilitate training and the provision of incentives which are required for motivating staff. Thirdly, it was recommended that experts be made available to train staff and explain all the elements of IRBM implementation. It was also recommended that training should be continuous to carter for both new and old staff members to ensure skills development.

The Effects of Weak Credit Risk Control Systems and their Contribution to Non-Performing Loans in the Zimbabwean Financial Services Sector: A Case of African Century Limited.
Gwenhure N. 2015. 


The non-performing loans have caused suffering to many depositors due to liquidation of financial institutions which resulted in many companies and individuals failing to access their hard earned funds from the affected financial institutions. This study explores the effects of weak credit risk control systems and their contribution to non-performing loans at African Century Limited (ACL). The study also seeks to determine the major causes of NPLs at ACL, to establish whether poor corporate governance is contributing to non-performing loans and to ascertain whether economic conditions have an impact on non-performing loans. A case study and descriptive research design was used in this research and judgemental sampling methods were used to locate the respondents and also in gathering the data and coming up with useful information. In this study, a sample of 5 credit analysts was given questionnaire to respond to. Two executive managers were also interviewed in person. Questionnaires and depth interviews were used as research instruments. The major limitations that were faced include the lack of adequate resources and time to do a wide research that covers a larger sample with more financial institutions. However in spite of this, interesting findings and observations were made and the following conclusions were derived. The majority of respondents have highlighted that ACL has a weak credit risk control system and it is a major contributor to NPLs. It was also established that there are other causes of NPLs at ACL including bad debtors and harsh economic environment. There is need for ACL to consider tightening the credit control systems, well resourcing the credit department in line with set targets in order not to compromise the quality of the book. The study also recommends an area of further study to formulate strategies that the financial service sector can use to reduce NPLs given the prevailing economic conditions in Zimbabwe.

Investigating the Impact of Business Process Reengineering on Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality: A Case Study of the New Merchant Bank.
Mweta T. 2015. 


This research work is done with a focus on the pre and post business process reengineering (BPR) of NMB Bank (NMB) that targets to improve service quality and customer satisfaction. Banks and other financial services providers continuously claim to offer customer- focused services, yet they still focus on delivering products instead of providing solutions to their customers’ needs. The changing dynamics and stiff competition in the banking sector has mandated players at all levels to re-engineer their business organisations in order to achieve the desired goals of improving performance, service quality and customers satisfaction. The banking operations and functions that is intended to meet emerging challenges of bank consolidation, slashing operating cost, outsourcing, portfolio investment, payments and settlement system call for innovative banking practices through Business Process Re-engineering. This enables banks to incorporate strategic innovative customer schemes that bridge the service gap inherent in the Zimbabwean financial services sector. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of BPR on service quality and customer satisfaction. In the study, both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were employed. The data was obtained from primary source that was analysed through simple percentage analysis. A total of thirty (30) Retail banking and Corporate banking managers were interviewed and questionnaires were sent to fifty (50) customers. The paper concluded that reengineering process remains an effective tool for organisations striving to operate as effectively and efficiently through service quality and customer satisfaction and organizations are required to reengineer their business processes in order to achieve breakthrough performance and long term strategy for organizational growth. Overall, BPR has a positive impact on service quality and customer satisfaction.

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